Introduction about the city
Samarkand, being the third greatest city of Uzbekistan after Karshi and Tashkent, is a city known for its mosques and mausoleums. It is located on the Silk Road which is the ancient trade route linking China to the Mediterranean. . Prominent landmarks include the Registan, a plaza bordered by 3 ornate, majolica-covered madrassas dating to the 15th and 17th centuries, and Gur-e-Amir, the towering tomb of Timur (Tamerlane), founder of the Timurid Empire.
It is the third greatest city of Uzbekistan, the center of Samarkand region. In ancient times city was called as Marakand – capital of Sogdiana. The origin of the name of the city is still not completely known. It is supposed that the word “Samar” is a name of one conqueror while the prefix “kand” means “the city”, “settlement”. Abu-Raykhan Beruni and Makhmud Kashgari, who were great scholars of XI century, held opinion that etymology of the word “Samarkand” came from “semizkent” which meant “rich”.
History relating to the city
Being one of the most ancient cities of the world, Samarkand was intended to pass through a number of events and shakes. The history’s city dates back to remote days. With the help of chronological records and archeological finds relating to eyewitnesses and ancient histories, it was established with full reliability that a man lived on this territory of modern city many centuries ago; even before the Common Era.
The official age of the city stands as 2700 years which begins from the first mentioning in the historical chronicles in the 329 BC. By the time Alexander Makedonskiy conquered Samarkand, the city was well in power and had a rich population which is why it is supposed that the city is older enough. Samarkand was an ideal place for living due its immensely beneficial geographical location, fresh climate and water source. Excavations made in the territory of this region also certify that people lived in this place since a long time. Many parts of Avesto, ancient book of Zaroastrians were written in the territory of Samarkand.
Several books about its rich and lamentable history of Samarkand were composed, numerous ballads and legends were made among the populace out of the city. Genuinely, Samarkand is the treasury of society of the general population of East. Samarkand encountered the time of Makedonskiy and Genghizhan, who leveled the city, and persevered through ruinous raids of savages and Arabs. The city commonly transformed into ruins and again got on to its feet and turned into the focal point of the Oriental world. Under the rule of Amir Timur Samarkand was the capital of world human progress, in Ulugbek’s opportunity – it was one of the best centers of science and society. Compound of the beliefs made Samarkand hugely tolerant, specifically the adage “Heaps of stairs lead to the Sky” originated from Samarkand, and in spite of the time of obscurantism the city safeguarded landmarks of design of different religions.
Amid the historical occasions of old times, the most punctual notice about Samarkand (otherwise called Marakand) dates to 329th year B.C., in portrayals of observers and members of the conquering armed force of Alexander the Great. At that point Samarkand was a major city with a large population developed crafts, trade, and culture. It had unassailable citadel and outside defensive wall with length of 10.5 kilometers.
The Modern day Samarkand
The modern day Samarkand treats the delegates of different admissions with consideration. Other than the customary mosques there are four other Orthodox holy places:
- Catholic Cathedral,
- Synagogues, and
- And supplications places of different religion streams.
Samarkand, a standout amongst the most vital geographic key purposes of the Great Silk Road, soaked up numerous societies, customs and workmanship. The city accumulated the most driving bosses of the Middle Age. All these were changed in the astounding and delightful landmarks of design, which still respect the general population. At the point when Europe swam through mud in the city of its urban communities, Samarkand was cleared with stones. Before attack of Genghizhan, individuals of Samarkand utilized water supply framework while the wellspring of water in numerous European urban areas were still the well.
Today Samarkand is the fortune unique and special spirit of antiquity. It is incorporated into the UNESCO World Heritage List because of the wealth of material and profound qualities. One of a kind landmarks of historical architecture, heritage of scientific and arts schools, artisans’ workshops are well-known around the world.
As indicated by different independent sources, Tajiks (Persian-speaking individuals) are the real ethnic group in the city, while ethnic Uzbeks shape a developing minority. Precise figures are hard to assess, subsequent to numerous individuals in Uzbekistan either identify as “Uzbek” despite the fact that they speak Eastern Persian as their first dialect, or in light of the fact that they are enrolled as Uzbeks by the focal government regardless of their Eastern Persian dialect and character. The ancestors of persian speaking people were brought by Amir Timur army as labour to build house, bazars, mosques and minarets for Mogul dinasty that lived at the time in modern Kashkadarya region of Uzbekistan
Restaurants and cafes in the city
Samarkand eateries and bistros practice on national Uzbek cooking. It is worth to taste Samarkand pilaf, which is not quite the same as Tashkent, Khiva, Bukhara pilafs, adding to the customary dish something new. Tourist situated cafes and restaurants are situated in some separation from the eminent Registan Square. Additionally in Samarkand, national houses and family-run eateries where you can attempt to eat nokhat-shourpa (thick sheep soup with neighborhood peas Nokhat), manty (stuffed baked good, steamed) and Samarkand somsa. In some Samarkand eateries and bistros you can appreciate national show and dances, national music, amid your lunch or supper.
Architecture of the “Rome of the East”
The best-known structure in Samarkand is the mausoleum known as Gur-i Amir. It exhibits many cultures and influences from past civilizations, neighboring peoples, and especially those of Islam. Despite the devastation the Mongols caused in the past to all of the Islamic architecture that had existed in the city prior to Timur’s succession, much of the destroyed Islamic influences were revived, recreated, and restored under Timur.
The blueprint and layout of the mosque itself follows the Islamic passion of geometry and other elements of the structure had been precisely measured. The entrance to the Gur-i Amir is decorated with Arabic calligraphy and inscriptions while the latter being a common feature in Islamic architecture. The attention to detail and meticulous nature of Timur is especially obvious when looking inside the building. Inside, the walls have been covered in tiles through a technique, originally developed in Iran, called the “mosaic faience,” a process where each tile is cut, colored, and fit into place individually. The tiles were also arranged in a specific way that would engrave words relating to the city’s religiosity; words like “Muhammad” and “Allah” have been spelled out on the walls using the tiles.
Oriental Silk Carpets from Samarkand
The art of weaving silk carpets is one of the oldest in our region. One can see many beautifully made silk carpets, hand-made by Uzbek female masters, in Bukhara, Samarkand and Khiva. Mostly, the girls do all the work. They paint yarn, then dry it and begin the main work. Manufacture of silk carpets is a time-consuming occupation. It may take from one to six months, and sometimes more than a year. It depends on the size and complexity of the carpet pattern.
While visiting Samarkand, one ought to visit the Hudzhum silk rugs processing plant. Here, the very procedure of floor coverings, such as carpets and rugs, assembling can be watched directly, to see the one of a kind examples of rugs and, obviously, order one of them.
For the most part young ladies are employed in the production line, they make astounding rugs of the most distinctive and fluctuated hues. Here one can see things with antiquated trimmings, made by mystery advancements that have advanced from centuries.
Uniqueness of the results of this processing plant is likewise in the way that the shading materials are made of natural hues: walnut, pomegranate, indigo, madder. Amid a visit to the manufacturing plant one can request one’s most favorite rugs, furthermore young girls can make a one of a kind carpet in light of particular representations and sketches.
Some sights of the city
- Bibi Hanim Mosque
- Gur-Emir Mausoleum
- Khodja Akhrar Ensemble
- Madrasah Tilla-Kori
- Mausoleum Ishratkhana
- Mausoleum of Imam al-Moturidi
- Mausoleum of Khoja Abdi Darunee
- Mausoleum of St. Daniel
- Observatory of Ulugbek
- Registan Square
- Rukhabad Mausoleum
- Settlement of Afrasiab
- Shakhi Zinda Burial Vault
- Sher-Dor Madrasah, Siab Bazaar
- The Mosque Hazrat Hyzr
Samarkand is the city of legend, and its stones and walls resemble live pages of history, which can be looked through unaccountably and endlessly. The name of the city of Samarkand is associated with the best researchers and artists of the Middle Age; such as Rudakiy, Alisher Navoi, Jamiy, Zahiri Samarkandiy, Ulugbek, Omar Khayam, Avicenna, Rumiy, Beruniy and numerous other people who illuminated the city to all around the globe.